Telomeres, cancer and aging

One quite fascinating thing in animal biology is the question of immortality or, to be more precise, the lack of it. While most unicellular organisms can divide for as long as they have the luck to find resources and space to do so, human cells can divide only a limited amount of times (approximately around 50 times, although this does not apply to stem cells that can divide an unlimited amount of times). In principle the limitation in divisions for most human cells is due to a mechanism that has been evolved and is not an intrinsic limitation. The cancer hypothesis is that the limitation makes the appearance of cancer more unlikely. If a cell is limited to just a few divisions, if it acquires a mutation that mutation is unlikely to spread to far.

The reason for this limitation are the telomeres, situated at the end of the chromosomes, that get shorter each time the cell divides. Once these telomores reach a critical size and become to small the cell will enter a state called senescence by which they will not divide again.

This is an interesting link in which they talk about this and how in the next few decades we might know enough about the effects of limited cell replication in human life expectancy, how to increase it (maybe for ever) and how to do that avoiding nasty side effects (like increased probability of dying from cancer). The website in which this is hosted is covering all sorts of news, many of them of dubious scientific interest, but the information in the link looks sound.

On the other hand in a more reliable source (PNAS) there is a nice study on how telomere dysfunction can cause genetic instability. They work on a disease known as Werner syndrome but it is quite useful stuff for cancer research. This Werner syndrome results in people aging prematurely and researchers at the Salk institute have found how extra short telomeres can be the source of the problem.

9 thoughts on “Telomeres, cancer and aging

  1. But perfect somatic replication with error prone germ line replication would allow evolution while suppressing cancer. Too bad we don’t have that. (We wonder if the capacity to mutate p16 helps to heal wounds in a chronic wounding syndrome – so there may be cases where somatic mutations are helpful.)

  2. Hi Carlo, nice to hear from you,It is entirely true, somatic mutations are, from the evolutionary point of view not that useful and a species capable of limiting mutations to those in the germ line would have an edge. It might be a quite complicated mechanism to evolve though.That would be an interesting example of how evolution would favour evolvability by selecting for organisms that can bias mutations towards beneficial mutations.The role of p16 is quite interesting (you want it to work but not to overdo it) and now that more is known about its role on proliferation and senescence this could be useful.

  3. We are happy to announce all the Previous/ongoing/upcoming individual and institutional/coporate members associated with DNA Research centre that DRC is now the member of BCIL, Biotech cosortium India Limited Govt of India. Note:All the projects provided at DRC will be live projects with maximum Industrial relevance.We have started with various Diagnostic services for the genetic disorders and high risk disease like cancer/HIV/Hepatitis with Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Services, Clinical Data Management, Clinical Trials and ResearchSite Management Services, Bio Imaging and Cardiac Safety.WHAT IS DNA RESEARCH CENTRE (Centre for Biological Research)DNA Research Centre is an autonomous registered research society, devoted for Vaccines and Drugs Research with the Bioinformatics/Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Applications. D.R.C works to create a platform conductive for the growth promotion and partnering in the field of Biological sciences.We at D.R.C are dedicated to provide a backbone to the Biological Research, for proper utilization of the advancements in the field of biological sciences by taking together students, professional, academics, organizations through consultative, advisory, educative process which will provide growth and partnership opportunities for organization, academics, students and the society and mankind as a whole.In this era of Biological Research our scientist and Researchers are taking the full-fledged step towards the conceptual, logical and practical accuracy of the Research & Development by applying up-to-dated approaches and technologies and techniques. We organize a vast range of workshop, trainings, projects and developmental programs for the youth, students, professionals and academics in the field of Applications of Bioinformatics.D.R.C by objectives Takes up Trainings, R&D services and associates Companies, Universities, Colleges, Biological experts, Research Organizations and work closely for enhancing the opportunities in the fertile area of Bioinformatics, Molecular biology, Biotechnology and emerging new applications for the benefits of the Society and human race.(For further details visit a look of the lab @ DRC soon we are going to be the First Indian Research centre with National and International accreditations & affiliations from the Top level universities (List available in new ventures).Updated List of the new Projects accepted by different journals and conferences are listed below in New Projects.Why Computers in Biology:Rule-of-thumb is that many of the genome sequencing centers are affiliated with bioinformatics programs due to the heavy informatics requirements within genome science. There’s millions and millions of unsolved problems. Biology is so digital, and incredibly complicated, but incredibly useful. The trouble with biology is that, if you have to work as a biologist, it’s boring. Your experiments take you three years and then, one night, the electricity goes off and all the things die! You start over. In computers we can create our own worlds. Biologists deserve a lot of credit for being able to slug it through. After fifty more years of explosive growth of computer science, there will still be a lot of fascinating unsolved problems at peoples’ fingertips, that it won’t be pretty much working on refinements of well-explored things. Maybe all of the simple stuff and the really great stuff has been discovered. It may not be true, but I can’t predict an unending growth. I can’t be as confident about computer science as I can about biology. Biology easily has 500 years of exciting problems to work on, it’s at that level.Our students gain knowledge of the scholarly informatics literature and the application requirements of specific areas within biology, chemistry and/or medicine. They learn to design and implement novel methods that are generalizable to a defined class of problems–focusing on the acquisition, representation, retrieval, and analysis of biomedical data and knowledge.”NEW VENTURESCollaborations, Memberships & Tie ups:(Very soon to be updated on our website (Member of Association of Biotechnology Led Enterprises)BCIL (Biotech consortium India Limited,Dept.of Biotechnology Govt. of India)BCISR Chennai (For Neurodegenerative Diseases Research)USP, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (Talks in Final stages) (For student exchange programmes in management and Biological Research) YCMOU, Nasik (Talks in progress for University Recognition for Biological Research Programmes, PhD and M.Tech)NITZA Biologicals HyderabadNew Privileged MembersAxis groupNEW CLIENTSBombay HospitalsJIPMER pondicherrySOME OF THE UNIVERSITY/COLLEGES FROM WHERE THE STUDENTS HAVE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED THE TRAININGS AND THE PROJECTS WITH US(Some colleges and universities are members with DRC as well.)VIT (Vellore Institute of Technology)JNTU (Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad)Osmania UniversityBanglore UniversityDelhi UniversityMumbai UniversityPunjabi Technical UniversityAllahabad Agricultural UniversityAmity University (Lucknow and Noida)SRM Deemed UniversityNIRMA College VishakapatnamCMR college of EngineeringSatyabhama college Chennai(For full details of the colleges and Universities call or email us)Publications Patents/ Successful projects worked out @ DRCGenbank accession numbers for the sequences which our Research team and scientists have worked out areDQ340075 entries from our team @ DRC now in the year 2007)*Critical Role of Proline and Glycine repeats in Neurodegenerative DisordersAccepted for the Publication on IEEE Proceedings at PRIB 2007(Paper Id 243)Authors: Kumar A, Srivastava S, Chengappa K* Conservation of MFCAG and AAHC patterns in Insulin Resistance syndrome and othercoagulation factor disordersAccepted for the Publication on IEEE Proceedings at PRIB 2007(Paper Id 252)Neetu Jabalia, Dr. Amit kumar, Neelangli srivastava, Jatinder kaur*Involvement of TKGF and FTYDQ pattern conservation in Diabetes and ObesityBhala Manisha, Dr. Amit kumarAccepted for the Publication on IEEE Proceedings at PRIB 2007(Paper Id 253)*Critical role of Tetra praline Repeats in OsteoarthritisNaveen S, Kumar A, Sinha A, kant RAccepted for the Publication on IEEE Proceedings at PRIB 2007(Paper Id 244)*Involvement of CYP 450 and the Pregnancy lossBhanu D, kumar A, Sanyal APublished in Indo American Centre conference proceedings, Manipal in 2007 issue.Involvement of hypothetical Proteins in Biodesel productionChandrakanth N, Nisha (Satyabhama university, Chennai)Published in Banglore Bio 2007(All the projects executed @ DRC has most of the parts which are done by the trainee students from different colleges to provide them with proper industrial exposure)(For the complete list Please call or email us)SELECTED STUDENTS WHO ARE VISITING PRIB 2007 IN SINGAPORE (1-2 October)Sambhavi srivastava (Kisan college, AAIDU)Supriya Naveen (Sri Indu college of engineering, Hyderabad)Ravi kant (AAIDU, Allahabad)Manisha bhala (Project trainee from National institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad)Neetu jabalia (Punjab University)Karan chengappaLIST OF THE STUDENT PLACEMENTS/ GOT ADMISSION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION TO REPUTED UNIVERSITIES/PAPER SELECTED FOR PUBLICATIONSMuni ranjan (WIPRO)Gomathi (Accenture)Ravikant (Recurited with DRC)Shambhavi srivastava (Recurited with DRC)TARUN (Got selected by Amity university for MBA Biotech)Karan Chengappa (Got selected by Amity university for MBA Biotech)Supria Naveen (Paper selected for publication)Ravikant (Paper selected for publication)Shambhavi srivastava (Paper selected for publication)Manisha Bhala (Paper selected for publication)Vivek kishore (Paper selected for publication)For the complete list call or email usDRC INTERNATIONAL TRAINEESSadaf Saba (Tehran)—Online TraineeDr. Emenike (IVRI, Nigeria) —- Classroom programmShailendra kumar singh (Russia) —— Classroom programmVivek chabra (Australia)—– Classroom programmUPCOMING VENTURES OF DRCWe are pleased to inform that very soon we are coming up in Mumbai and PatnaNEW WORKSHOPS, TRAININGS, PROJECTS @ DNA RESEARCH CENTREPurpose of the ProgramThe programs goal is to train all the interested individuals to function as independent researchers in a multidisciplinary environment focusing on Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology, Oncoinformatics, Chemioinformatics, Immunoinformatics, clinical informatics, Discovery informatics, Pharmacoinformatics, Agriinformatics, Biomedical computation, Application of computation in different branches of life scinces etc. To achieve this goal we have assembled a team of researchers specializing in Biostatistics/Statistics, Bioinformatics/Biomedical, Molecular Biologists, and the biology Nutrition and cancer. Through a combination of didactic coursework, seminars and research experiences, trainees will be expected to make important contributions in the development of statistical methods targeted to experiments in Different pathological disease and the most dangerous diseases like cancer and to function as a true collaborator in teams of biologists, instead of merely as a specialist in setting sample sizes and performing data analysis of simple experiments.Eligibility: Graduate/Undergraduates (Biology,any life science/Chemistry/Computer science)SCHOLERSHIPS @ DRCScholarships up to 40% may be achieved once you write the scholarship test after joining the centre. The percentage of scholarship will be completely a waiver from the fee structure and trainees don’t need to pay it.Scholarships may be written from the perspective background of the trainees. (eg. Biology backround will be given with biology questions,chemistry with chemistry and computer science with computer science)Scholarships will comprise the basic questions with a few long answer question (not more than 350 words).Every batch we have 4 scholarships availableBASIC MODULECourse duration: (30 Days)CourseworkIntroductory Bioinformatics& overview of Biological Research with BioinformaticsMolecular Biology concepts, Biological databases & Database SearchingBioinformatics & Functional ProteomicsBioinformatics & Structural ProteomicsBioinformatics & Expression proteomicsPairwise and Multiple Sequence analysis (BLAST, FASTA, CLUSTAL W))Motif and Domain AssignmentsIntroductory Computational GenomicsPhylogenetic Analysis in BioinformaticsLive Project (1)Industrial Project (1)CORE MODULE(Course duration: 45 days)CourseworkIntroductory Bioinformatics& overview of Biological Research with BioinformaticsMolecular Biology concepts, Biological databases & Database SearchingBioinformatics & Functional ProteomicsBioinformatics & Structural ProteomicsBioinformatics & Expression proteomicsPairwise and Multiple Sequence analysis (BLAST, FASTA and CLUSTAL W)Motif and Domain AssignmentsIntroductory Computational GenomicsPhylogenetic Analysis in BioinformaticsMass spectrometry in ProteomicsHomology ModelingThreading, Protein InteractionsIntroduction to SAS and Application to Biological SciencesOnline LectureLive Project (2)Industrial Project (1)ELECTIVE MODULE(Course duration 60 days)CourseworkIntroductory Bioinformatics& overview of Biological Research with BioinformaticsMolecular Biology concepts, Biological databases & Database SearchingBioinformatics & Functional ProteomicsBioinformatics & Structural ProteomicsBioinformatics & Expression proteomicsPairwise and Multiple Sequence analysis (BLAST, FASTA and CLUSTAL W)Motif and Domain AssignmentsIntroductory Computational GenomicsPhylogenetic Analysis in BioinformaticsMass spectrometry in ProteomicsHomology ModelingThreadingProtein InteractionsStructural BioinformaticsAb Initio Structure PredictionApplied computational GenomicsProtein Modeling and Impact on Protein physical PropertiesIntroductory Rational Drug DesignSAS with Clinical Data ManagementOnline lectureLive Project (2)Industrial Project (2)ADVANCE MODULE:(Course duration: 90 days)CourseworkIntroductory Bioinformatics& overview of Biological Research with BioinformaticsMolecular Biology concepts, Biological databases & Database SearchingBioinformatics & Functional ProteomicsBioinformatics & Structural ProteomicsBioinformatics & Expression proteomicsPairwise and Multiple Sequence analysis (BLAST, FASTA and CLUSTAL W)Motif and Domain AssignmentsIntroductory Computational GenomicsPhylogenetic Analysis in BioinformaticsMass spectrometry in ProteomicsHomology ModelingThreadingProtein InteractionsStructural BioinformaticsAb Initio Structure PredictionApplied computational GenomicsProtein Modeling and Impact on Protein physical PropertiesIntroductory Rational Drug DesignVisualization ToolsModelling and ThreadingDrug Targeting & DesignSimulation studiesOrganellar Proteomics and GenomicsReverse VaccinologyAntigenicity and ImmunigenicitySAS with Proteomics/Genomics/Clinical Trials)Online LecturesLive Project (3)Industrial Project (3)FOUNDATION MODULECourse Duration: (180 days)CourseworkIntroductory Bioinformatics& overview of Biological Research with BioinformaticsMolecular Biology concepts, Biological databases & Database SearchingBioinformatics & Functional ProteomicsBioinformatics & Structural ProteomicsBioinformatics & Expression proteomicsPairwise and Multiple Sequence analysis (BLAST, FASTA and CLUSTAL W)Motif and Domain AssignmentsIntroductory Computational GenomicsPhylogenetic Analysis in BioinformaticsMass spectrometry in ProteomicsHomology ModelingThreadingProtein InteractionsStructural BioinformaticsAb Initio Structure PredictionApplied computational GenomicsProtein Modeling and Impact on Protein physical PropertiesIntroductory Rational Drug DesignVisualization ToolsModelling and ThreadingDrug Targeting & DesignSimulation studiesOrganellar Proteomics and GenomicsReverse VaccinologyAntigenicity and ImmunigenicitySAS ProteomicsSAS GenomicsSAS Clinical Trials)Online LecturesAny Two super specialized Courses listed below (In the New course Listings)Live Project (3)Industrial Project (5)WHATS NEW @ DNA RESEARCH CENTREIMMUNOINFORMATICS:(Course Duration: 30 days)Immunoinformatics is the application of informatics techniques to molecules of the immune system. One of its principal goals is the effective prediction of immunogenicity, be that at the level of epitope, subunit vaccine, or attenuated pathogen. Immunogenicity is the ability of a pathogen or component thereof to induce a specific immune response when first exposed to surveillance by the immune system, whereas antigenicity is the capacity for recognition by the extant machinery of the adaptive immune response in a recall response. In thisbook, we introduce these subjects and explore the current state of play in immunoinformatics and the in silico prediction of immunogenicity.CourseworkIntroductory BioinformaticsAccessing Genome AgenciesData MiningAntigen presentationComputational chemistryComputational vaccinologyVaccine ScreeningImmunoinformatics CoreMHC bindingMass Spectrometry Applications to ImmunologyVaccine designMajor Research ProjectMETABOLOMICS:(Course Duration: 30 days)CourseworkIntroduction to Mass Spectrometry and Database SearchingProtein pathway databasesSmall Molecule AnalysisQuantitative OmicsEnzymologyMetabolic Pathway predictionsMetabolic pathway AnalysisMetabolomics and Advanced Technologies.Sample preparation (Optional)Metabolic Data analysis.Application of SAS to MetabolomicsMajor Research Project PATTERN RECOGNITION IN BIOLOGY:(Course Duration: 30 days)CourseworkIntegrative BioinformaticsDatasets and databases for Biological Sequence AcquisitionRepresentation Related problems in pattern RecognitionStatistical Learning and application of Pattern RecognitionRegulatory Sequence AnalysisThreadingSystems Biology for pattern recognitionSAS in pattern RecognitionMajor Research ProjectPHARMACOINFORMATICS:(Course Duration: 45 days)Pharmacy Informatics is the realization of informatics in a cost effective environment that benefits the Pharmacist and the practice of Pharmacy through utilization of efficacious systems and tools.Pharmacy Informatics is also a mind set that spawns from the very depths of Healthcare and Technology as a whole. Indeed, Pharmacy Informatics is as actively a part of Healthcare Informatics as the left arm is part of the body. And while systems may be designed strictly for the practice of Pharmacy, it is folly to attempt to create them without acknowledging Healthcare as a whole. It is of an even higher importance today when informatics is pushing us to link our healthcare systems together to share information.CourseworkIntroductory BioinformaticsPharmaceutical DatabasesRobotics and automation in pharmacy1. Technical cybernetics1. Introduction to Pattern recognition2. Sensors3. Artificial intelligence4. Knowledge based information systems5. Computer-aided decision support2. Pharmacy automation1. Automated medication dosage, filling, and packaging2. Coding of information, bar-codes3. Medication distribution and management, inventory control4. Computerized narcotic and IV systemsIntegrated health care information systems1. Point-of-care information systems2. Electronic patient record3. Computerized medical record system4. Health care financial systems5. Health care management and planning systemsLegal and ethical aspects of information technologies1. Health information confidentiality rules2. Security and privacy in medical information systems3. Biometrics4. Accountability and liability of information users and providers5. Intellectual property protection and copyright6. Regulation of the information infrastructureCommercial applications of information technologies1. Marketing and advertising2. Financial and trade transactions (Electronic Data Interchange)Patient education and continuity of pharmacy care1. Drug information systems2. Public health information systems3. Information technologies in pharmaceutical error preventionIntellectual Property Rights and Pharmaco informaticsMajor Research ProjectMEDICAL AND CLINICAL INFORMATICS:(Most Beneficial for Health care and Clinical Research Students and Professionals)The primary goal our program in Medical and Clinical Informatics is to educate the future developers and managers of health care information systems. Individuals with a variety of backgrounds are provided a strong technical grounding in medical informatics, health and medicine, computer science, and research methods so that they may assume positions that require a thorough understanding of both information technology and the health care environment. After this course a solid knowledge base in medical and clinical informatics may be achieved, some of them are:• Aspirants should be able to apply basic principles of biomedical informatics to problems in different domains of health and biomedicine.• Aspirants should have operational knowledge of the human body in health and disease as well as the organization of the health care system.• Aspirants should be able to apply principles of organizational behavior and management skills to biomedical informatics problems.• Aspirants should be able to apply basic statistics and quantitative or qualitative research methods to evaluative research projects.• Aspirants should be able to apply basic computer science principles to problems in health and biomedicine.• Aspirants will be adept in the tools of advanced scholarship, including the ability to address ethical issues in the field, communicate effectively in oral and written form, and complete a thesis or capstone.The programs are primarily designed to meet the educational needs of two types of students – the health care professional seeking additional training in information management and technology and the non-health care professional seeking training in health information and technology. The overall curriculum for the program is unique, with the exception that you don’t need to have a deep knowledge of Clinical Research.CourseworkBiomedical InformaticsBioinformatics SurveyClinical and Biomedical data AnalysisClinical Systems in Computational BiologyConsumer Health InformaticsInformation RetrievalKnowledge StructuresText MiningBiomedical & Clinical PracticeIntroduction to BiostatisticsDesign and Evaluation in ResearchOncoinformaticsSAS and clinical Research TogetherProjectCHEMIOINFORMATICS/CHEMICAL INFORMATICS(Duration 30 Days)Introduction to chemioinformaticsChemical Databases and datasetsSmall molecule hitsDesigning chemical structuresLead design and optimizationChemical reaction indexingPharmacophore analysisChemical patentsComputer simulationsFDA in drug trialsMajor Research projectWHY TO LEARN SAS 9.1.3 MODULES @ DNA RESEARCH CENTRE education in India is primarily focused on pharmaceutics, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacognosy. Some institutions have taken vast initiatives in restructuring course curricula and introducing new courses namely pharmaceutical management, clinical pharmacy, pharmaceutical medicine and regulatory affairs etc. at B.Pharm, M.Pharm, as well as PhD level.Typically, job scenarios involve pharmacist, medical representative, product management, teaching, and research & development positions. Our pharmacists can have a vital role in monitoring clinical trials, patient data management and Statistical Analytical Software (SAS)-programming which involves United States FDA regulations.Discovering and developing safe and effective new medicines is a long, difficult and expensive process: Preclinical Testing –> Investigational New Drug Application (IND) –> Clinical Trials, Phase- I –> Phase-II –> Phase-III –> New Drug Application (NDA) –> Approval –> Phase-IV.SAS-programming is very important from preclinical testing to approval stages. Here, when you see the sequence of drug development and approval process you can yourself realize how important clinical trials and SAS-programming areas are and there is an urgent need of starting training programs in these areas. How?Training program on how to effectively monitor clinical trials can be designed based on Good Clinical Practices and ICH guidelines. Various topics may include: design of protocol, case report forms, reporting serious adverse events, early phase clinical evaluation, processing clinical research data, clinical database, data display, report and analysis plan, clinical trial report, standard operating procedures in regulatory affairs, auditing of clinical trials and new drug application etc.Clinical trials data arriving on case report forms is fairly standard, for example demography, adverse event, medications, laboratory etc hence can be stored in fairly standard data structures. Designing clinical data structures for data entry is important, but it should be done with some understanding of the analysis that will be performed. Once an appropriate clinical data structure is arrived at for data entry, it is important to then determine how to best use the data in the SAS analysis environment.US FDA considers SAS validation an important component of the quality assurance, reliability & accuracy of much of the information used to approve & develop drugs and medical devices. Hot spots and crucial points in pharmaceutical research & developments are submission of various clinical reports to FDA and these clinical reports need to be created using SAS-programming techniques. Our educational institutions must create structured training program in these high tech areas so as to create pharmacist + IT (SAS) manpower for future. Here is an outline depicting in which direction we need to proceed further so that our professionals can play at international level and enjoy a unique & challenging job profile: (1) Clinical Report Generation for example: (a) Adverse Event tables and listings, (b) Demographics, (c) Safety, (d) Efficacy, (e) Lab Data, (2) Custom Derived SAS data sets, (3) SAS-Programming for NDAs (New Drug Applications), (4) Experience with Phases I-IV, (5) Data Cleaning, (6) Statistical Analysis using SAS tools and (7) Data Warehousing.After acquiring a combination of B.Pharm, or M.Pharm, or even PhD and Clinical SAS-Programming technical know-how; what kind of job profile is prevailing in pharmaceutical industry is a logical question which our graduates may have in mind. The answer is job description may include U.S. and International regulatory submissions, Creation of data marts for data mining, Analysis of clinical trial, pharmacokinetic, epidemiological and product stability data using statistical analysis software, Development of integrated data analysis systems, Design of complex graphical reporting software with SAS/GRAPH, Validation of applications software and data, Creation of user friendly interfaces with SAS/FSP and SAS/AF, Extensive use of the SAS macro facility to provide reusable software, UNIX system administration and networking with Novell and TCP/IPSAS CONTENTS VERSION 9.1.3MODULE: 1Course Duration: 30 DaysC and C++BASE/ SASSAS /PROCEDURESMODULE: 2Course Duration: 60 DaysBASE/ SASSAS /PROCEDURESSAS/MACROSSAS/ACCESSSAS/CONNECTSAS/ETSMODULE: 3Course Duration: 90 DaysBASE/ SASSAS /PROCEDURESSAS/MACROSSAS/ACCESSSAS/CONNECTSAS/ETSSAS/STATSAS/QCSAS/GeneticsSAS/ETLSAS/OLAPPROC SQLSAS/Procedures: Proc Print Proc Format Proc Contents Proc Append Proc Compare Proc Transpose Proc Import Proc Export Proc Options Proc Copy Proc Forms Proc FormatReporting Procedures: Proc Report Proc Tabulate Proc Chart Proc Gchart Proc Tree Proc Plot Proc GplotSAS/MACROS: SAS/ Macros Macro Variables Macro Processing Macro Functions Automatic Macro Variables SYMPUT SYMGET Working Structure of MacrosSAS/ACCESS: Interface to DBMS and RDBMSSAS/ CONNECT: Introduction to SAS ConnectSAS/STAT: Introduction to SAS Statistics Working with Statistical AnalysisAnalysis if VarianceRegressionCorrelationANOVASAS/ETS: Introduction to ETS Investment AnalysisLoansGeneric Cash Flow Time Series Analysis Fore Cost AnalysisSAS/QC: Statistical Quality Control Capability AnalysisWorking With SQL (SAS/SQL): Introduction to SAS/SQL Understanding SQL through SAS Proc SQL(Pass Through Facility) Proc SQL StatementsSAS\ETL: Introduction to ETL Accessing Data Through ETLSAS/OLAP: Introduction to OLAP Types of OLAPUsing of SAS/OLAP* CANDIATES MAY CHOOSE THE MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT ON DRUG DESIGN, SAS, VACCINOLOGY, DISEASE STUDIES ETC OF THEIR OWN INTEREST WHICH MAY BE PROVIDED AND GUIDED BY DRC.* DRC PROJECTS ARE STRICTLY LIVE AND INDUSTRIAL AND CAN BE USED FOR THE PUBLICATION SINCE ALL THE STUDENTS WILL BE PROVIDED WITH MOST UPCOMING RESEARCH TOPICS.For the most relevant list of the projects at DRC you may email/call us.WET LABS TECHNOQUES AND MODULES @ DNA RESEARCH CENTREProficiency in Microbial Biotechnology1. Isolation of Micro-organisms from soil by serial dilution2. Pure culture preparation3. Identification of organisms bya. Staining techniquesi. Grams stainingii. Flagelar stainingiii. Endospore stainingiv. Capsular stainingb. Biochemical testsi. IMVIC testii. Caesein hydrolysisiii. Starch hydrolysisiv. Gelatin liquificationv. Catalase testvi. TSI test4. Growth curve5. Mutation studies6. Bacterial conjugationProficiency in Recombinat DNA Technology1. Isolation of plant DNA2. Purification of plant DNA3. Isolation of animal DNA4. Isolation of Plasmid DNA5. Isolation of genomic DNA from prokaryotes6. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of DNA7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis8. Elusion of inserts from the Gel9. Restriction Digestion10. Ligation11. Transformation12. Gene cloning and expretion13. Southern Blotting14. Western BlottingProficiency in Enzymology1. Isolation of micro-organisms from soil by serial dilution2. Pure culture preparation3. Screening for the enzyme production4. Batch Culturea. Solid state fermentationb. Submerged fermentation5. Enzyme purificationa. Salt precipitation techniqueb. Dialysis6. Ion Exchange Chromatography7. Enzyme assay8. Quantitative estimation of Protein9. Enzyme kinetica. pHb. Temperaturec. Substrate concd. Activatore. Inhibitor10. SDS – PAGE11. Immobilization of EnzymeProficiency in Immunotechnology1. Isolation & Purification of Ig G from blood samplea. Salt Precipitationb. Dialysisc. Ion exchange Chromatographyd. Quantitative estimation of proteinse. SDS PAGE2. ODD test3. RID test4. Immuno electrophoresis5. HCG test (Pregnancy test)6. Blood Grouping and Rh typing7. ELISA8. Widal9. RPR testProficiency in Plant Tissue Culture1. Instrumentation in Plant tissue culturei. Hot air ovenii. Autoclave unitiii. Culture vessels and racksiv. Incubation chamberv. Rotary Shakervi. Deep freezervii. Laminar air flow unit2. Sterilization technique:i. Glasswareii. Explant preparation3. Preparation of culture media:i. Preparation of stock solutions of MS, B5, Nitsch and LS mediaii. Preparation of hormone stocks solution.iii. Preparation of MS, Gamborgs, Nitsch and LS media4. Callus culture:i. Initiation and maintenance of callus from the inter nodal explants of stemexplants of any available plant materialii. Embryo cultureiii. Anther cultureiv. Meristam culture5. Techniques involved in Agrobacterium mediated gene transformationi. Leaf Disc Preparationii. Co-cultivationiii. Selection media transfer6. Encapsulation of embryoProficiency in Industrial Microbiology1. Sterility Techniques2. Isolation of Micro-organisms from natural sources3. Staining Techniquei. Grams stainingii. Endospore staining4. Biochemical Testsi. Gelatin liquificationii. Catalase testiii. TSI test5. Bacterial Growth Curve6. Mutation Studies7. Screening of Micro Organisms for Industrial applicationsi. Caesein hydrolysisii. Starch hydrolysisiii. Cellulose hydrolysis9. Antibiotic assays10. Quality control of milk11. Water analysisProficiency in Clinical Microbiology1. Isolation of Micro-organisms from clinical sample2. Grams staining3. IMVIC test4. Starch hydrolysis5. Gelatin liquification6. H2S production test7. ELISA test8. Widal test9. Detection of blood group and Rh factor10. Catalase test11. Pregnancy test12. Detection of urinary protein13. Detection of urinary glucose14. Detection of ketone bodies in urine sample15. Heamoglobulin test16. RPR test17. WBC countDetails of Advance ModulesADVANCE MODULE I – Microbial Biotechnology1. Fundamentals in Microbiology2. Microbiological culture media and its importance in Biotechnology3. Sterilization Techniques4. Isolation of Micro-organisms from air and soil5. Pure culture preparation6. Identification of organisms bya. Staining techniquesb. Biochemical tests7. Growth curveApplied Techniques1. Antibiotic assays2. Mutational studies by Replica plating method3. Bacterial conjugation4. Screening for Enzymes5. Antogonism studies6. Isolation of protozoa from samples7. Isolation & Identification of fungi8. Production of secondary metabolites (Acids, Wine, Enzymes, Antibiotics)ADVANCE MODULE II – Recombinant DNA TechnologyI. Fundamentals1. Isolation of plant DNA SDS method,C-TAB method2. Isolation of RNA3. Isolation of animal DNA4. Isolation of Plasmid DNA5. Isolation of genomic DNA from prokaryotes6. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of DNAII. Applied Techniques1. Tm of DNA-Melting point of DNA2. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis3. Elusion of inserts from the Gel4. Restriction Digestion5. Ligation6. Transformation7. Gene cloning and expression8. Southern Blotting9. Western Blotting10. PCR TechniquesADVANCE MODULE III – Fermentation and downstream ProcessingI. Fundamentals1. Fermentation Fundamental2. Submerged fermentation3. Solid state fermentation4. Fermentation systemsa. Conical flaskb. Vesselsc. FermentorsII. Applied aspects depends on the desired products(Citric acid/Amino acids/ Enzymes/Antibiotics)1. Down stream processinga. Extra cellularb. Intra cellular2. Cell separation techniquesa. Centrifugationb. Membrane filtrationc. Cell lysing3. Isolation /Purification of desire productsa. Precipitation techniquesb. Solvent extractionc. Dialysisd. Ion exchange chromatographye. DistillationIII Analysis of Metabolites/Products1. Thin layer chromatography2. Melting point determination3. Spectrophotometer determination4. Titrometric5. ElectrophoresisADVANCE MODULE IV – Immunological TechniquesI. Agglutination and Precipitation Methods1. Blood grouping and Rh typing2. Fibril Agglutination test(Widal test)3. VDRL Test/ RPR4. Hbs Ag TestII. Gel diffusion Methods1. Ouchterlony Double Diffusion2. Single Radial Immunodiffusion3. Immunoelectrophoresis4. Counter current immunoelectrophoresis5. Rocket immunoelectrophoresisONLINE TRAININGS WITH DNA RESEARCH CENTREAll the listed trainings except the wetlab Practicals are available via Online Mode via our web based facilities. For details about the Guides available call or write to us.SHORT DURATION COURSES @ DNA RESEARCH CENTRE*Courses for one week and 20days are available, for details email or call us.ONLY PROJECT COMPLETION (WITHOUT TRAINING) : Upto 45 days @ 4750/-DIPLOMA FOR 3,6 AND 9 MONTHS (Can be pursued Live or online)*DRC Courseware (Study materials) are made available for both online and live trainees.CONFIRMING TRANING/PROJECT/WORKSHOP WITH DRCIf any of our programme interests you, please submit an application on a plain paper along with your CV stating the purpose for which you require training and the expected duration of training. A letter of recommendation from one of your teacher/guide/Head of Department including the Demand draft forINR 751/- (For Indian Nationals),USD 150 (For International Applicants) International applicants may use the wire transfer favour of DNA Research Centre, Payable at Hyderabad/Secunderabad (India) along with the Photocopies of the credentials and certificates shall be sent to:DNA Research Centre12-13-1249, 1st floorBesides Andhra Bank, opp.appolo ClinicTarnaka Main RoadSecunderabad-500017India(Note: Students opting for more than 2 or more months course may get the registration number by sending the DD for INR 6751/- and rest of the fees may be paid once they join the Respective batch.)Interested candidates may register for the programmes (Who are choosing for the batches after July 2007) till on or before August 28th 2007. Late fine of INR 500/- (For Indian Nationals) USD 50 For International Applicants will be charged for the candidates who fail to register in below mentioned time. Once the deadline is over registration is only possible if the vacancies arise. Maximum strength per batch is 10.Once the seats are full applications will not be entertained.Candidates should email the DD details (Indian nationals) (International Applicants)Organization website: Registrations are open for upcoming Batches 13th August 2007 (Registration without late fine till 4th August 2007)10th September 2007 (Registration without late fine till 1st September 2007)8th October 2007 (Registration without late fine 1st October 2007)12th November 2007 (Registration without late fine till 3rd November 2007)10th December 2007 (Registration without late fine till 1st December 2007)7th of Jan 2008 (Registration without late fine 10th December 2007)Helpline numbers: +91-40-40180502/9247438983 (For Indian Nationals): +91-40-40180503 (For International Applicants)HOW TO REACH DRCHyderabad and secunderabad are known as twin cities of India. Hyderabad is known as genome vally because of presence of most Biological Research labs in the city. It is well connected by Train, Bus or Air routes from every part of country. Once your enter the city enquire to reach Tarnaka. Once you cross NIN (National institute of nutrition take left turn and DRC is at walkable distance on Tarnaka – Lalapet main road).We are located near the same location where the Most renound labs like CCMB, IICT and NIN are located.ACCOMODATION:DNA Research Centre has its own Guest house as well as tie up with the nearby guest houses with fully furnished facilities and homely environment. Trainees seeking accommodation shall inform us by email or phone so that there seat may be booked accordingly.Accomodation @ 2500/- month (Including Lodging and fooding)FOR ANY FURTHER ASSISTANCE/QUERRIES WE WILL BE HAPPY TO HEAR YOU ATDNA Research Centre12-13-1249, 1st floorBesides Andhra Bank, opp. Appolo ClinicTarnaka Main RoadSecunderabad-500017Andhra Pradesh (India)Website: http://www.dnares.inEmail: dnaresearchcentre@gmail.comPhone: +91-40-40180502/9247438983

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